Development Methodology

The traditional software development cycle follows a rigid sequence of steps with a formal sign-off at the completion of each.  A complete, detailed requirements analysis is done that attempts to capture the system requirements in a Requirements Specification. Users are forced to "sign-off" on the specification before development proceeds to the next step. This is followed by a complete system design and then development and testing.

But, what if the design phase uncovers requirements that are technically unfeasible, or extremely expensive to implement? What if errors in the design are encountered during the build phase? The elapsed time between the initial analysis and testing is usually a period of several months. What if business requirements or priorities change or the users realize they overlooked critical needs during the analysis phase? These are many of the reasons why software development projects either fail or don’t meet the user’s expectations when delivered.

RAD is a methodology for compressing the analysis, design, build, and test phases into a series of short, iterative development cycles. This has a number of distinct advantages over the traditional sequential development model.

RAD projects are typically staffed with small integrated teams comprised of developers, end users, and IT technical resources. Small teams, combined with short, iterative development cycles optimizes speed, unity of vision and purpose, effective informal communication and simple project management.

Rapid Application Development

RAD (rapid application development) is a concept that products can be developed faster and of higher quality through:

    * Gathering requirements using workshops or focus groups
    * Prototyping and early, reiterative user testing of designs
    * The re-use of software components

    * A rigidly paced schedule that defers design improvements to the next product version
    * Less formality in reviews and other team communication

Some companies offer products that provide some or all of the tools for RAD software development. (The concept can be applied to hardware development as well.) These products include requirements gathering tools, prototyping tools, computer-aided software engineering tools, language development environments such as those for the Java platform, groupware for communication among development members, and testing tools. RAD usually embraces object-oriented programming methodology, which inherently fosters software re-use. The most popular object-oriented programming languages, C++ and Java, are offered in visual programming packages often described as providing rapid application development.


The V-model is a software development model which can be presumed to be
the extension of the waterfall model. Instead of moving down in a
linear way, the process steps are bent upwards after the coding phase,
to form the typical V shape. The V-Model demonstrates the relationships
between each phase of the development life cycle and its associated
phase of testing.

Verification Phases

Requirements analysis:In this phase, the requirements of the proposed system are collected by analyzing the needs of the user(s). This phase is concerned about establishing what the ideal system has to perform. However, it does not determine how the software will be designed or built. Usually, the users are interviewed and a document called the user requirements document is generated. The user requirements document will typically describe the system’s functional, physical, interface, performance, data, security requirements etc as expected by the user. It is one which the business analysts use to communicate their understanding of the system back to the users. The users carefully review this document as this document would serve as the guideline for the system designers in the system design phase. The user acceptance tests are designed in this phase.

System Design:System engineers analyze and understand the business of the proposed system by studying the user requirements document. They figure out possibilities and techniques by which the user requirements can be implemented. If any of the requirements are not feasible, the user is informed of the issue. A resolution is found and the user requirement document is edited accordingly.

      The software specification document which serves as a blueprint for the development phase is generated. This document contains the general system organization, menu structures, data structures etc. It may also hold example business scenarios, sample windows, reports for the better understanding. Other technical documentation like entity diagrams, data dictionary will also be produced in this phase. The documents for system testing is prepared in this phase.

Architecture Design:This phase can also be called as high-level design. The baseline in selecting the architecture is that it should realize all which typically consists of the list of modules, brief functionality of each module, their interface relationships, dependencies, database tables, architecture diagrams, technology details etc. The integration testing design is carried out in this phase.

Module Design:This phase can also be called as low-level design. The designed system is broken up in to smaller units or modules and each of them is explained so that the programmer can start coding directly. The low level design document or program specifications will contain a detailed functional logic of the module, in pseudocode – database tables, with all elements, including their type and size – all interface details with complete API references- all dependency issues- error message listings- complete input and outputs for a module. The unit test design is developed in this stage.

Waterfall Model

Waterfall approach was first Process Model to be introduced and
followed widely in Software Engineering to ensure success of the
project. In “The Waterfall” approach, the whole process of software
development is divided into separate process phases. The phases in
Waterfall model are: Requirement Specifications phase, Software Design,
Implementation and Testing & Maintenance. All these phases are
cascaded to each other so that second phase is started as and when
defined set of goals are achieved for first phase and it is signed off,
so the name “Waterfall Model”. All the methods and processes undertaken
in Waterfall Model are more visible.